Concerning the Sacrament of the Altar, we hold that the bread and wine in the Eucharist,* are the true body and blood of Christ, which are administered and received not only by pious, but also by impious Christians.

* In pursuing this subject, in the twentieth vol. of his works published by Walch, page 1293, sec. 347, 348, 349, Dr. Luther says:– "In the fourth place, the Evangelists write that the Holy Spirit descended upon Christ in the form of a dove in Jordan, John 4, 32; again, that he came upon the disciples in the form of winds and fiery tongues on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2, 2; again, on mount Tabor, in the form of a cloud, Matt. 17, 5. Here Wickliff and the sophists may philosophize and assert that a dove was present, but not the Holy Spirit; or, that the Holy Spirit was there, and not a dove. We say in opposition to both propositions, that if we refer to the dove, we can truly and literally say, 'this is the Holy Spirit,' because, in this case, the two different essences– Spirit and dove– have become one essence in some manner, neither a natural nor personal, but rather a formal union, because the Holy Spirit wished to reveal himself in such form. And in reference to this the Scriptures declare positively, that whoever saw the dove, saw the Holy Spirit, as John 1, 33, says: 'Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him,' &c.

"Why then should we not much rather say in the Eucharist: this is my body, although bread and body are two distinct things, and the word this belongs to the bread? For here also has taken place a union of two distinct things: this I shall call a sacramental union, because bread and Christ's body are here given to us for a sacrament. It is not, indeed, a natural or personal union, as in Christ; it is perhaps a different union to that also which the dove has with the Holy Spirit, and the flame with the angel: nevertheless, it is truly a sacramental union.

"For this reason it is correctly said that, if we point to the bread, and say, 'this is the body of Christ,' whoever sees this bread, sees the body of Christ; precisely as John says, that he saw the Holy Spirit, when he saw the dove," &c. –TRANS.

And we hold that more than one element should be administered. And we have no need of the transcendental refinement, which teaches us that there is as much in one element as in both, as the sophists and the Council of Constance teach us. For, even if it were true that there is as much in one element as in both, still the one element is not the whole order and institution established and commanded by Christ. And especially do we condemn, and in the name of God abhor those who, not only omit the second element, but also imperiously forbid, condemn, and calumniate it as heresy, and thus place themselves against and above Christ, our Lord and God.

Concerning transubstantiation, we do by no means regard the subtle sophistry, in which they teach that bread and wine part with, or lose their natural essence, the form and color only remaining, but are no longer real bread and wine; for it corresponds best with the Scripture, that bread is and remains here, as St. Paul himself calls it "The bread which we break," 1 Cor. 10, 16. "And so let him eat of that bread," 1 Cor. 11, 28.